Natural History

Galileo 1564- 1642

Sir Frances Bacon 1561-1626

Johannes Kepler 1571-1630

Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727

Linneaus (1707-1778) Systema Natura (1735-38)

Charles Darwin 1809-1882 On the Origin of Species (1859)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543) polymath.

John James Audubon (1785 – 1851) ornithologist. naturalist. hunter and painter.

Gregor Mendel 1822-1884. “Experiments on Plant Hybridization” 1865.


Natural sciences form the basis for the applied sciences. Together, the natural and applied sciences are distinguished from the social sciences on the one hand, and from the humanities, theology and the arts on the other. Though Mathematics, statistics, and computer science are not considered natural sciences, they provide many tools and frameworks used within the natural sciences.

Alongside this traditional usage, the phrase natural sciences is also sometimes used more narrowly to refer to its everyday usage, that is, related to natural history. In this sense “natural sciences” may refer to the biology and perhaps also the earth sciences, as distinguished from the physical sciences, including astronomy, physics, and chemistry.

Within the natural sciences, the term hard science is sometimes used to describe those sub-fields that rely on experimental, quantifiable data or the scientific method and focus on accuracy and objectivity. These usually include physics, chemistry and many of the sub-fields of biology. By contrast, soft science is often used to describe the scientific fields that are more reliant on qualitative research, including the social sciences.

There is some research, collectivelly known as graphism thesis, that indicates that natural science relies on graphs more than soft sciences and mathematics do.

Prior to the 17th century, the objective study of nature was known as natural philosophy. Over the next two centuries, however, a philosophical interpretation of nature was gradually replaced by a scientific approach using inductive methodology. The works of Sir Francis Bacon popularized this approach, thereby helping to forge the scientific revolution.

Aldo Leopold
(January 11, 1887April 21, 1948) was a American ecologist, forester and environmentalist. He was influential in the development of modern environmental ethics and in the movement for wilderness preservation. Leopold is considered to be the father of wildlife management in the United States and was a life-long fisherman and hunter. Leopold died in 1948 from a heart attack, while fighting a brush fire on a neighbor’s farm.

Published in 1949, shortly after Leopold’s death, A Sand County Almanac is a combination of natural history, scene painting with words, and philosophy. It is perhaps best known for the following quote, which defines his land ethic: “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.”


Loren Corey Eiseley (September 3, 1907July 9, 1977) was a highly respected anthropologist, science writer, ecologist and poet. He published books of essays, biography and general science in the 1950s, ’60s and ’70s.

Eiseley is best known for the poetic essay style, called the “concealed essay”. He used this to explain complex scientific ideas, such as human evolution, to the general public.

He is also known for his writings about humanity’s relationship with the natural world. These helped inspire the environmental movement. Among his books are The Immense Journey (1957), Darwin’s Century (1958), The Unexpected Universe (1969), The Night Country (1971), and the memoir All the Strange Hours (1975).


Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist (Myrmecology, a branch of entomology), researcher (sociobiology, biodiversity), theorist (consilience, biophilia), and naturalist (conservationism).

In Search of Nature.


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